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Current Affairs

Terrorism claimed 6,000 Lives in 2013

Terrorism claimed 6000 lives in 2013: Karachi proved most violent
Mohammad Nafees
Thursday, 27 February 2014
The incidents of terrorism continued unabated in Pakistan in the year 2013. As there was not let up in militant, sectarian, terrorist and politically-motivated attacks across the country, nearly 6,000 people lost their lives making 2013 one of the deadliest years in Pakistan’s decade-long fight against terrorism and extremism. The ferocious wave of militancy during the year also gripped areas that were previously considered peaceful, challenging the law-enforcement agencies to counter the threat.

It is estimated that more than 5,500 Pakistanis were wounded in suicide and other terrorist as well as criminal acts in the year 2013. The year also witnessed an unusual surge in incidents of sectarian attacks in which mostly the Shiite Muslims were killed. However, the violence took an alarming turn towards the end of the year when top leaders and scholars from both the Sunni and Shiite sects were targeted, fueling the sectarian tensions across Pakistan.

However, in the face of the continuing wave of violence, the country witnessed for the first time in its troubled political history a successful transfer of power from one elected government to another, raising hopes that the newly-elected government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif will bring the much-needed peace to the country. But the political transition did not discourage the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) to stop its violent campaign.

It is reported in local press that from early June 2013 to the end of January 2014 there were more than 850 incidents of terrorism perpetrated by the TTP and its associate outfits, claiming lives of more than 1,400 Pakistanis. The killing of 10 foreign tourists, including Chinese in Diamer dealt a devastating blow to the mountaineering industry and caused huge embarrassment for Pakistan worldwide.

While terrorist outfits appeared more organized and lethal in their subversive acts, cluelessness and confusion in the political circles as well as security establishment about how to deal with the problem of militancy was also blamed for the growing threat of extremism.

However, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif insisted that the only way forward was to engage in peace talks with the TTP and at one stage the government claimed the peace process was about to take off when a US drone strike killed the group’s chief, Hakimullah Mehsud. The government blamed the United States for sabotaging the peace process and there was a fear of a deadly backlash in the wake of the killing of the TTP leader.

Two major attacks on Pakistani troops, one near Miranshah and the second in Bannu, provoked the military to launch surgical air strikes also using warplanes for the first time in North Waziristan to punish the perpetrators. Locals have reported that a massive military movement continued in the area towards the end of the year, triggering speculations that a long-awaited military action in North Waziristan was in the offing. But these speculations apparently subsided as the government initiated peace process.

The New Year arrived with good news for the nation as a government-appointed committee engaged the TTP-nominated delegation of public figures led by Maulana Samiul Haq but there is widespread skepticism about the success of the latest peace effort.

This report reviews in depth the forms of violence used in different parts of the country highlighting the major locations that were highly affected by violence during the year 2013. It also reviews the areas where the violence was used to challenge the writ of the government in addition to targeting the civilian and military population. It also discusses in brief the targeted operation in Karachi and the reluctance of the government to launch an operation against the militants who have been challenging the writ of the government. The key issues discussed in this report are:

Violence in major cities of Pakistan – Year 2013

Violence in Karachi

Violence in Quetta

Violence in Peshawar

Violence in Lahore

Casualties of different crimes

Casualties and locations of target killings

Casualties and locations of Militants’ attacks

Casualties and locations of terrorism

Casualties of military and para-military operations

Drone attacks

All assessments and reviews are based on the factual data collected from the reports that appeared in the local press. Efforts are made to maintain the data as accurate as possible within the available resources. Errors and omissions, as always a possibility in all statistical works including this one, are expected. However, such mistakes do not grossly affect the basic objective of this report.

Overview:

Violence-related casualties in Pakistan – Year 2013

Pakistan counted 11,249 people (5,697 dead and 5,552 injured) as victims of violence and counter violence operations in the country (Refer to table 1 & Graph 1). The number of fatalities was the highest in Sindh province followed by FATA, KPK, Punjab, Federal Capital, GB, and AJK (Refer to table 2). The number of persons wounded was the highest in KPK followed by Balochistan, Sindh, FATA, Punjab, GB, and AJK (Refer to table 3). Reason for this difference will be discussed in a separate chapter.

Graph 1: Casualties of violence – Year 2013

Table 1: Casualties of violence – Year 2013

Violence Data – Year 2013

Month

Killed

Injured

Total Casualties

January

641

388

1029

February

461

330

791

March

553

392

945

April

432

544

976

May

614

914

1528

June

616

535

1151

July

572

640

1212

August

429

342

771

September

492

547

1039

October

287

275

562

November

320

320

640

December

280

325

605

Total

5697

5552

11249

Table 2: Deaths due to violence (Provincial level) – Year 2013

Province Deaths

Sindh 2090

FATA 1460

KP 1038

Balochistan 946

Punjab 119

Islamabad 20

GB 20

AJK 3

Table 3: Wounded due to violence (Provincial level) – Year 2013

Province Deaths

KP 1676

Balochistan 1272

Sindh 1256

FATA 1028

Punjab 293

GB 5

AJK 3

Applying the figures of fatalities to the population of each region reflects that the highest affected area was FATA where 4.6 persons per 10,000 of the population died compared to average 0.6 person per 10,000 in the rest of the country. Even the province of Sindh, with highest number of fatalities, lost 0.7 persons per 10,000 during the year (Refer to table 4).

Table 4: Fatalities per 10,000 of the population

Population of Pakistan (1998 census)

Population

Deaths

Per/10,000

FATA

3,176,331

1460

4.6

Punjab

73,621,290

119

0.0

KPK

17,743,645

1038

0.6

Sindh

30,439,893

2090

0.7

Balochistan

6,565,885

946

1.4

Capital

805,235

20

0.2

Average (excluding FATA)

0.6

Violence in major cities of Pakistan – Year 2013

All major cities of Pakistan, except Lahore, faced frequent incidents of violence that consumed a large number human lives with Karachi being on top among them all (Refer to Graph 2). Target killing, militants’ attacks, sectarian violence, and terrorism were the most common forms of crimes used by the criminals and militants to eliminate their opponents and spread fear among the people. Other than Punjab, no place in the country was safe from these crimes and the occurrences of these crimes changed their frequencies at each location for various reasons. In Karachi, target killings left 1628 person dead while in Quetta there were 91 victims of it and Peshawar lost only 51 person to this crime. To understand this variance in criminal activities, an in-depth review of the socio-political situation is necessary.

Graph 2: Deaths due to violence in major cities of Pakistan:

Violence in Karachi:
Karachi lost nearly 2006 person to different nature of crimes during this year like target killing (1628), terrorism (165), security operation (136), and militants’ attacks (39). Gang war in Lyari and other adjacent areas also caused deaths but their numbers are difficult to ascertain from the news reports that often lack proper identification of the victims. Major contributors to these crimes in the city were political rivalry, gang war, migration of the militants to Karachi, and sectarian violence. Kidnapping for ransom and extortion crimes also occur very frequently in this commercial hub of the country and the perpetrators of these crimes are suspected to have links with different political parties, gangsters, and outlawed outfits like TTP and LeJ. These links can be sensed from the victims of violence in Karachi. After civilians, politicians (mainly activists and supporters) were the highest victims of violence and the government officials (mainly Police and Rangers) were the third highest victims of violence in the city during the year 2013 (Refer table 5).

Table 5: Victims of violence in Karachi – Year 2013

Victims Deaths

Civilians 1,177

Politicians 297 (mostly activists and supporters)

Govt officials 178 (Policemen and rangers)

Criminals 152 (Gangsters, extortionists)

Religious politicians 96 (Belonging to religious political parties)

Militants 55 (Belonging to outlawed organizations – TTP, LeJ, LI)

Religious people 21 (Preachers, Pesh Imams, and religious scholars)

Kidnappers 9

Public property 6 (Attack on public properties resulting in deaths as well)

The data on affiliation of the victims of violence also points to the contributing factors referenced above (Refer table 6). The leading political party of Karachi, MQM, lost the largest number of its activists and supporters during this year and second to them were the police officials. Political activists belonging to ANP and PPP were also victims of violence in Karachi. Sectarian violence had its share too and the religious communities like Shia, Ismaili, and Bohra communities were also targeted in the city. Religious parties like ASWJ (Ahl-e-Sunnat Wal Jamat), ST (Sunni Tehreek), MWM (Majlis-e-Wahdat-ul-Muslameen), and JI (Jamat-e-Islami) also lost their activists to the sectarian violence.

Table 6: Affiliation of victims of violence in Karachi – Year 2013

Affiliation Deaths

MQM 198

Police Department 125

Shia community 66

ANP 53

ASWJ 52

TTP 44

Sunni Tehreek 38

Lyari Gangsters 37

Army 25

Kutchi Rabita Committee 24

PPP 15

Baloch community 14

Jamat-e-Islami 10

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi 9

MQM-H 7

Arshad Pappu Gang 7

PML-N 5

Ahmadi Community 5

Bohra community 4

Hindu community 4

MWM 4

PTI 4

Methods used to carry out violence in Karachi varied from gunning down of the victims to the abduction and dumping of dead body at a remote location. In 2013, Karachi reported to have found 373 dead bodies. No other city in the country reported such a high number of dead body discoveries. Even the whole province of Balochistan, often quoted as the highly affected of abduction of dumping of dead body incidents, had reportedly found 84 dead bodies during this year. The areas found to have been heavily affected of violence in Karachi were Lyari, Orangi, Korangi, Landhi, Malir, and Sohrab Goth besides many other locations of the city that too remained in the grip of violence on a moderate level (Refer to graph 7)

Graph 7: Location of violence in Karachi

To bring peace in the city of Karachi, a targeted operation was launched in the month of September 2013 and the data we collected reflect a significant decline in the rate of crimes in the city after the operation was launched (Refer graph 8).

Graph 8: Deaths due to violence in Karachi – Year 2013

Violence in Quetta:

Quetta, the capital city of Balochistan, lost 473 human lives to the violence during the year 2013, majority of the victims were from Shia Hazara community who lost 198 (over 40% of the total human loss in the city). Quetta appears to be in the grip of different outlawed militant organizations. Almost 50% of the human losses in Quetta were claimed to have been the handy work of the outlawed organizations like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (170)[1] [2] [3] [4], Tehreek-e-Taliban of Pakistan (51)[5] [6] [7], and Jaish-ul-Islam (4). After Shia Hazara, Police officials were the second highest victims of violence who lost 35 personnel in Quetta during the year 2013. The areas having witnessed bloodbaths of over a hundred people in Quetta were Hazara Town and Alamdar Road besides many other areas with a lower number of fatalities (Refer to table 9).

Table 9: Locations of violence in Quetta – Year 2013

Location Deaths

Hazara Town 116

Alamdar Road 105

Sariab Road 22

SBKW University 14

Bhosa Mandi 13

Boland Med. Complex 12

Eastern Bypass 11

Zarghoon Road 10

Satellite Town 9

Kharotabad 8

Dera Allah Yar 6

Market Place 6

Common methods of violence in Quetta were suicide attacks, bomb attacks, gunning down, and dead bodies. Unlike Karachi, target killing was a less common cause of deaths in Quetta. Instead, militants’ attacks and terrorism were the methods commonly used to inflict deaths in this capital city of Balochistan (Refer to table 10).

Table 10: Nature of violence in Quetta – Year 2013

Nature of violence Deaths

Militants’ attacks 190 (Suicide and armed attacks, indiscriminate firing, grenade, cracker, mortar or rocket fire)

Terrorism 161 (Planting of bombs, IEDs, landmines, toy bombs,)

Target killings 99 (Gunned down or dead bodies)

Security operation 19

Violence in Peshawar:

423 are the persons that Peshawar, the capital city of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP), lost due to violence in the year 2013. After civilians, the second highest victims of violence were the government officials like policemen, FC personnel, intelligence officers, and soldiers. Religious places like Church and Mosque also came under militants’ attacks and even prayer leaders (Pesh Imams) were not spared either. The locations that had the highest number of fatalities in Peshawar were Qissa Khawani Bazar, Matani, Badhaber, and Bacha Khan Chowk (Refer to table 11).

Table 11: Locations of violence in Peshawar – Year 2013

Location Deaths

Qissa Khwani Bazar 125

Matani 51

Badabher 33

Bacha Khan Chowk 20

Yaktoot 16

Gulshan Colony 15

Fakhr-e-Alam Rd 12

University Road 11

Sra Khawra 10

Bara 7

Ring Road 7

Like Quetta, Peshawar also suffered heavily from suicide attacks, bomb attacks, and gun shots. More than 80% deaths of violence in Peshawar were due to militants’ attacks and terrorism. Deaths due to target killings and security operations were less than 20% of the total fatalities (Refer to table 12). Interestingly, the claimants of violence in Peshawar were also outlawed organizations and nearly 30% of fatalities in Peshawar were owned by TTP-Junood Hifsa[8] and TTP[9] [10] [11] [12].

Table 12: Nature of violence in Peshawar – Year 2013

Nature of violence Deaths

Militants’ attacks 228 (Suicide and armed attacks, indiscriminate firing, grenade, cracker, mortar or rocket fire)

Terrorism 120 (Planting of bombs, IEDs, landmines, toy bombs,)

Target killings 60 (Gunned down or dead bodies)

Security operation 13

A large number of the victims of violence in Peshawar had links with communities or organizations that were opposed to the outlawed militant organizations (Refer to table 13). Shia, Christians, and Peace Lashkars were always on targets of the militants in the past and this year too they couldn’t escape from their wrath. Army and policemen were the natural victim of violence because of their profession. Political parties like ANP and PPP were declared to be on the hit list of TTP during the election campaign and they haven’t made any change to their position so far.

Table 13: Affiliation of the victims of violence in Peshawar – Year 2013

Affiliation Deaths

Christian community 83

Army personnel 31

Policemen 25

ANP 17

Peace Lashkar 15

Shia community 5

Polio team 3

TTP 2

Lashkar-e-Islami 1

PPP 1

Violence in Lahore:

Lahore, the capital city of the Punjab, suffered a loss of 29 persons to the violence during the whole year of 2013. Majority of them were victims of target killings and a few of them became victims of terrorism. Sectarian violence also played its role when a frenzy mob of nearly 3,000 people attacked a Christian population in Lahore on March 9 and burnt down more than 100 houses in Joseph Colony because of an allegation that a Christian had made derogatory remarks about Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)[13]. Two prominent religious leaders of Shia and Sunni sects were also targeted in Lahore during the month of December and a renowned eye specialist of the Lahore General Hospital (LGH), Prof Dr Syed Ali Haider, and his son were murdered in a brazen targeted attack on 19 February in Gulberg. The areas that had had higher number of fatalities among other places were Old Anarkari, Gujarpura, and Defence (Refer to table 14). The affiliation of the victims of violence in Lahore is reflective of the dominance of sectarian violence in the city (Refer to table 15).

Table 14: Locations of violence in Lahore – Year 2013

Location Deaths

Old Anarkali 5

Gujarpura 4

Defence 3

Badami Bagh 2

Gulberg 2

Johar Town 2

Misri Shah 2

Ravi Road 2

Anarkali Market 1

Davis Road 1

Table 15: Affiliation of victims of violence in Lahore – Year 2013

Affiliation Deaths

Shia community 2

ASWJ 1

JuD 1

MWM 1

PML-Q 1

Sunni Tehreek 1

Different crimes-related casualties:

The country appears to have been divided in two distinct zones facing different forms of crimes causing deaths and destructions, one zone, Sindh and the Punjab, is dominantly affected of target killings while the other zone, KP and Balochistan, suffers from militant attacks and terrorism.

Casualties and locations of target killings:

In the year 2013, casualties in target killings in the country were 3,873 (deaths 2,376 and injured 497) and majority of these killings took place in Sindh, more precisely in Karachi. Other provinces of the country also had their shares in it but their number was very low (Refer to table 16). Karachi with Orangi, Lyari, Korangi and Malir suffered the most (Refer to table 17). Majority of the identifiable civilian victims of target killings belonged to mainstream political parties, religious parties, gangsters and peace lashkars while the non-civilian victims were mainly the policemen and some army personnel (Refer to table 18).

Most of the target killings are motivated by the political, ethnic, and sectarian rivalry. There are some other players as well like land mafia and gangsters but they do not have any particular identification

Table 16: Deaths due to target killing in Pakistan – Year 2013

Province Deaths

Sindh 1,675

Balochistan 317

KP 220

FATA 85

Punjab 57

Islamabad 16

GB 7

Table 17: Major locations of target killing in Pakistan – Year 2013
Location Deaths

Orangi 122

Lyari 107

Korangi 88

Nazimabad 46

Sohrab Goth 44

Kharadar 44

Surjani Town 42

Baldia Town 37

North Karachi 34

Manghopir 33

Landhi 31

Gulistan-e-Jauhar 29

SITE 27

Gulshan 26

Pak Colony 24

Peerabad 23

Shah Faisal 22

Liaquatabad 22

SMCH 19

North Nazimabad 19

Garden 18

Soldier Bazar 16

Table 18: Affiliation of the victims of target killing in Pakistan – Year 2013

Affiliation Deaths

MQM 182

Police Dept 151

Shia Community 68

ASWJ 53

Sunni Tehreek 39

ANP 32

Peace Lashkar 28

Kutchi Rabida Council 24

Lyari Gangsters 22

PPP 20

Army 16

Shia Hazara 16

People’s Amn Committee 13

Sipah Afridi Tribe 13

Frontier Corps 11

Jamat-e-Islami 11

PMLN 11

Baloch Community 10

Polio Team 10

Independent Politicians 9

TTP 8

MQM-H 7

PTI 6

Punjabi Labourers 6

Casualties and locations of Militants’ attacks:

Throughout the country, 387 militants’ attacks took place in 2013 using the following methods:

48 Suicide attacks

156 armed attacks

4 Clashes with security agencies

7 Hurling of crackers

94 Hand grenade attacks

1 Hostage taking by the militants

7 Indiscriminate firing

1 Jail Break

1 Armed militants attacked the Ex PM’s son and kidnapped him

1 Missile attack

9 Mortar shell attacks

44 Rocket attacks

A total of 3,184 persons were the victims of the militants’ attacks in the country during 2013 and 1,147 of them lost their lives and 2,037 persons were injured. The highest number of casualties in such attacks was recorded in Khyber Phukhtunkhwa (460 persons) followed by FATA (294), Balochistan (292), Sindh (68), Punjab (14), AJK (3), and Islamabad (1). Sindh and Punjab were less by this crime compared to other parts of the country. On district level, Peshawar and Quetta had the highest figures of casualties followed by North Waziristan, Khyber Agency, Kurrum Agency, and Hangu (Refer to graph 19).

Table 19: Deaths due to militants’ attacks in Pakistan – Year 2013

Location Deaths

Peshawar 228

Quetta 190

N. Waziristan 91

Khyber Agency 86

Kurrum Agency 77

Hangu 62

Karachi 42

D.I. Khan 41

Mardan 41

Lakki Marwat 37

S. Waziristan 20

Bannu 19

Bolan 19

Sukkur 17

Naseerabad 15

Kalat 11

Nanga Parbat 11

Dera Adam Khel 10

Gwadar 10

Bajaur 9

Majority of the victims of militant attacks were civilians (465), government officials like policemen, FC personnel, soldiers, Khassadars, and Levies (223), militants belonging to different outlawed outfits (158), religious places like mosque, church, and imambargah (86), politicians and their supporters (66), besides many others. Locations that were highly affected by this crime were Alamdar Road, Qissa Khawani Bazar, Bara, Parachinar and many others (Refer to table 20).

Methods used in militants’ attacks were highly dangerous and fatal. Most common of them were suicide attacks (662 deaths), armed attacks (345), hand grenade attacks (40), rocket fires (38), jail break (18), clash [between militants and security officials] (17), mortar shell fires (17), indiscriminate firings (11), and hurling crackers (3). Those who claimed these attacks were Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), the TTP, the TTP-Junood Hifsa, the TTP-Ansarul Mujahideen and many others (Refer to graph 21). The identifiable victims of militants’ attacks had affiliation with Shia Hazara, Christians, army personnel, Shia (other than Shia Hazara), policemen, and many others (Refer to table 22)

Table 20: Major locations of militants’ attacks in Pakistan – Year 2013

Location Deaths

Alamdar Road 105

Qissa Khwani Bazar 98

Bara 83

Parachinar 75

Zargoon Kally 73

Hazara Town 38

Mir Ali 31

Pat Bazar 31

Matani 28

Badabher 22

Miranshah 20

Thall 20

Macch 18

Datta Khell 18

Yaktoot 17

Gulshan Colony 16

TTM Colony 15

Ladha 15

Fakhr-e-Alam Road 13

Diamer 12

Barrage Colony 11

Table 21: Claimants of militants’ attacks in Pakistan – Year 2013

Claimants Killed by claimants

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi 144

Tehreek-e-Taliban 128

TTP – Junood Hifsa 94

TTP – Ansarul Mujahideen 74

Ansarul Islam 46

Baloch Liberation Front 16

Baloch Liberation Army 15

Al-Qaeda/TTP 8

Militants (unknown) 6

Table 22: Affiliation of the victims of militants’ attacks in Pakistan – Year 2013

Affiliation Deaths

Shia Hazara 105

Christian community 83

Army 81

Shia 64

Police Dept 58

TTP/Lashkar-e-Islam 46

Shia/Sunni 28

ANP 23

Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf 12

Lashkar-e-Islam 11

Peace Lashkar 11

ISI 10

PPP 8

TTP/AQ 7

Casualties and locations of terrorism:

Casualties caused by terrorism were 3,262 (822 deaths and 2,440 injured) and the highly affected regions of this crime were KPK (229), Balochistan (222), FATA (193), Sindh (169), and Punjab (9). On district level, Quetta, Karachi, Peshawar, North Waziristan, Kurrum Agency, and Khyber Agency lost the highest number of people among other districts of the country (Refer to graph 23). Civilians, government officials (soldiers, policemen and higher officials, rangers, and FC personnel), politicians, religious politicians (belonging to ANP, JUI-F, MQM, PPP, and PMLN), religious people, and militants were the major victims of terrorism in the country. Five mosques were also desecrated in the acts of terrorism:

6 Jan: BARA: A mosque that once remained headquarters of the outlawed militant group, Lashkar-e-Islam, was blown up by unidentified persons in Nala area in Bara tehsil in Khyber Agency Friday night.

9 Mar: At least six people were killed and 30 others injured in a remote-controlled blast inside Jamia Hanfia Chishtia Mosque in Meena Bazaar of Peshawar, Provincial Capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

25 Apr: There were TV channel reports about late night explosions and firing in Kalat area. The first attack wounded 13 people near a Shia mosque and a private hospital in Quetta.

18 May: DARGAI: Twenty-one persons were killed and around 120 others sustained injuries in separate bomb blasts during the Friday prayer at two mosques in Bazdarra village in Palai Union Council of Malakand Agency.

11 Jul: KOHAT: Two persons were killed and five others sustained injuries in a remote-controlled blast outside a mosque in the Kacha Pakka area near the city on the first day of Ramazan.

Major locations of the incidents of terrorism were Hazara Town, Miranshah, Abbas Town, Qissa Khwani Bazar, Sewak village and many others (Refer to table 24). Bomb attacks, IEDs, landmines, toy bombs, were the common methods to carry out acts of terrorism in the country (Refer to table 25). Out of 822 terrorism-related fatalities, 138 were claimed by the outlawed organizations like the TTP (108), the LeJ (26), the TTP – Ansarul Mujahideen (3), and Lashkar-e-Islam (1).

Table 23: Deaths due to terrorism in Pakistan – Year 2013

City Deaths

Quetta 161

Karachi 159

Peshawar 120

N. Waziristan 66

Kurrum Agency 45

Orakzai Agency 28

Malakand 21

Khyber Agency 20

Hangu 18

Nowshera 17

Bannu 14

Dera Bugti 12

Mohmand 10

Bajaur 9

Table 24: Affiliation of the victims of militants’ attacks in Pakistan – Year 2013

Locations Deaths

Hazara Town 84

Miranshah 51

Abbas Town 48

Qissa Khwani Bazar 41

Sewak village 23

Dargai 23

Landhi 21

Bacha Khan Chowk 21

Jalozai Camp 20

Kalaya 17

SBKW University 16

Bhosa Mandi 14

Boland Medical Complex 13

Lyari 13

Mir Ali 12

Mominabad 12

Bara 11

Burns Road 9

Matani 9

Sui 9

Badabher 9

Table 25: Methods of terrorism in Pakistan – Year 2013

Methods of terrorism Deaths

Bomb explosion 673

IED detonation 95

Landmine 34

Toy bomb 6

Beheading 2

Bomb defused 2

Casualties in military and para-military operations:

Like drone attacks, military and para-military (including Military, Frontier Corps, Khassadars, and Levies) operations against the militants have been a matter of controversy in the country. Yet, the circumstances compelled the security forces to take actions against the militants at different occasions during the year. In January, military attacked the hideouts of the Tehreek-e-Taliban (TTP) and Lashkar-e-Islami (LI) in Tirah Valley of Khyber Agency as they tried to take control of the valley from Ansarul Islam (AI), a pro government Brelvi Sunni organization, opposed to the TTP and LI. The conflict between AI and TTP/LI continued for several months and to provide support to pro-government AI, military also carried out several air and heavy artillery attacks against TTP and LI locations. Another military operation was carried out in December in retaliation to suicide attack on an army camp in Khajori on December 18. Besides these major operations, military had to carry out many other counter-violence operations during the year that left 528 persons dead and 134 wounded. Most of the military operations were carried out in FATA (453 deaths), Balochistan (100), and KP (60). Based on the available information, the victims of military operations were:

Militants = 580

Security = 15

Civilians = 13

Criminals = 5

Since most of the military operations remain beyond access of the media, no source other than the government source is available to verify the authenticity of these figures. It often results in prompting doubts among the observers and analysts.

During these military operations, seventeen (17) air attacks were carried out in FATA, KP, and Balochistan killing 169 militants and insurgents. There were clashes, gun battles, encounters, and heavy artillery operations as well. Majority of the victims of these operations were associated with the TTP, Ansarul Islam, Lashkar-e-Islami, Peace Lashkars and security personnel.

Drone attacks:

Twenty-seven drone strikes were recorded in Pakistan during this year that left 169 persons dead and 29 injured. Majority of the victims, according to press reports, were militants belonging to the TTP (76), Haqqani network (16), Al-Qaeda (8), Punjabi Taliban (5), TTP-Gul Bahadur group (3), foreign militants (3), and unknown (20). Miranshah, Mir Ali, and Babargarh were the locations where the number of deaths was higher than other areas (Refer to table 26).

Table 26: Locations of drone strikes in Pakistan – Year 2013

Locations of drone attacks Deaths

Miranshah 43

Mir Ali 18

Babargarh 17

Thall 9

Hashokhel 8

Ladha 7

Shawal 7

Danday Darpakhel 6

Dargah Mandi 6

Makeen 6

Shalmeen 6

Dattakhel 3

Qutabkhel 3

Muhammadkhel 2

For the first time, the CIA-operated unmanned aerial combat vehicle extended its area of operation from FATA to the settled areas of the country and targeted a seminary in Thall tehsil of Hangu district, killing nine persons, including a senior commander of the Haqqani network. Leaving aside the question as to what the militants of the Afghan based network were doing in the settled area of Pakistan, the government and the political parties began showing a strong reaction to the incident and PTI took this attack as a valid reason for them turn their threat of blocking the NATO supply into reality. The key figures of militant organizations who lost their lives due to drone strikes this year are listed below:

3 Jan: Maulvi Nazir – TTP

3 Jan: Shah Faisal – a close associate of the TTP’s chief Hakimullah Mehsud

6 Jan: Qari Imran, Punjabi TTP chapter leader

Wali Muhammad alias “Tufan Mehsud”. He is said to be the cousin of TTP chief Hakimullah Mehsud

9 Jan: Sheikh Yasin Al Kuwaiti, a senior Al Qaeda operative

25 Apr: Abu Ubaidah Abdullah Al Adam, Al Qaeda

29 May: Waliur Rehman, Fahkre Alam, Nasseruddin, Nassurlah

3 Jul: Punjabi militant ‘commanders’ — Rana Ashraf and Naveed Butt.

Abu Saif Al-Jazeri, an operative of Al Qaeda.

Mullah Akhtar Zadran, a ‘commander’ of the Haqqani network,

28 Jul: Abu Rashid from Saudi Arabia, Muhammad Ilyas Kuwaiti from Kuwait and Muhammad Sajid Yamani from Yemen associated with Al Qaeda.

7 Sep: Mullah Sangeen Zadran, Haqqani network

21 Nov: Maulvi Ahmad Jan (identified as Maulana Ghazi Marjan), Maulana Hameedullah, Maulana Abdur Rahman and Maulana Abdullah – Haqqani Network

Conclusion:

In September this year, government held All Parties Conference to seek consensus on how to deal with the menace of lawlessness in Karachi and other parts of the country. The decision was:

– Targeted operation in Karachi

– “Give peace a chance” in areas affected of terrorism, militants’ attacks, and insurgency (FATA, KP, and Balochistan).

From the data included in this report, it is easy to analyze as to what type of violence posed serious threats to the peace and sovereignty of the country. In Karachi, major causes of deaths were because of target killings followed by Terrorism and militants’ attacks. However, the number of persons wounded in target killings in Karachi was only 20% of the fatalities while the number of persons wounded in terrorism and militants’ attacks were nearly 400% of the fatalities (Refer to table 3).

Table 3: Violence-related casualties in Karachi

Other than Sindh and Punjab all other parts of the country mainly suffered from the crimes like terrorism and militants’ attacks instead of target killings. Majority of these crimes were claimed to have been committed by the outlawed organizations like the TTP, the TTP-Junood Hifsa, the TTP-Ansarul Mujahideen, Ansarul Islam, LeJ, BLF, BLT, and BLA. What it proves is that the crimes like loss/crippling of human lives and sabotage activities against the government installations were not as common in Karachi as they were in other parts of the country. Yet, “talks and no action” remained to be the mainstay of the government in areas that faced far more dangerous situation than what Karachi faced.

Military operations and drone attacks are also controversial issues. Collateral damages are cited as reasons for opposition to the drone attacks and military operations. The casualties in military operations were too high compared to the casualties in drone attacks but there was hardly any high profile militant leader eliminated by the military operation and a majority of them was victim of drone attacks.

The country is facing a serious challenge to its existence because of these heinous crimes and the resultant polarization on the basis of ideological, sectarian, and political considerations. Crimes are ignored or supported by these considerations. This serves no purpose except widening the divide that already exists in the country. Would our government be able to rise above these biases in handling the menace of violence faced by the country?

(NOTE: Readers can approach the CRSS for source of any information included in the report. Please send your request to: [mail@crss.pk])

[1] http://www.dawn.com/news/777830/at-least-93-lives-lost-in-quetta-explosions

[2] http://www.dawn.com/news/1011218/quetta-attack-toll-rises-to-8

[3] http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-2-184373-Quetta-suicide-attacks-were-acts-of-revenge-by-LeJ

[4] http://tribune.com.pk/story/570514/2-killed-in-quetta-explosion/

[5] http://www.dawn.com/news/1035173/suicide-attack-at-islamabad-mosque-foiled-bomber-gunned-down

[6] http://tribune.com.pk/story/553305/7-security-personnel-killed-in-quetta-bomb-attack/

[7] http://images.thenews.com.pk/09-08-2013/ethenews/t-24699.htm

[8] http://www.thenews.com.pk/article-119340-Peshawar-church-bombings-toll-hits-81;-over-145-injured

[9] http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-13-22292-20-killed-in-deadly-pre-poll-violence

[10] http://www.dawn.com/news/1021998/police-names-three-ttp-suspects-in-peshawar-attack

[11] http://images.thenews.com.pk/04-07-2013/ethenews/t-23875.htm

[12] http://tribune.com.pk/story/610582/peshawar-bloodbath-nightmare-re-enacted-on-bus/

[13] http://www.dawn.com/news/791849/protests-in-lahore

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